Camera Trap Survey. Large mammals with body length exceeding 25 cm were surveyed using camera traps. Passive infrared camera traps, which allow photographs of wildlife to be taken automatically whenever a "warm" animal crosses in front of the infrared sensor, are attached individually to tree trunks at about 1.5-2.5 m above the ground. Memory card and batteries are replaced regularly for each camera, depending on the abundance of the local wildlife.
Small Mammal Trap Survey. Trapping is the ideal method to study small mammals. As species tend to resemble each other, it is necessary to differentiate species by close investigation. Foldable box traps were deployed, and six to ten traps were placed at each site, at least 10 m apart. Traps were baited with sweet potato and peanut butter, placed at selected sites, and checked in the early morning of the following day.
Mist net survey. Mist nets are effective capture devices for bats. Mist nets are made of microfilaments or nylon and were set up at dusk and checked every 20 minutes to remove captured bats.
Bat Boxes. Wooden bat boxes were installed in the nature reserve as artificial roosting sites for bats, especially for Pipistrellus abramus.
All photographed or captured animals are identified to species level following Shek (2006).